Bird assembly in restinga reforested areas

Abstract

Fragmentation is one of environmental degradation and reduction of biodiversity causes, including in bird communities, mainly in Atlantic Forest areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in richness and functional groups structure in the ornitofauna from a Restinga forest fragment and four areas with different ages of reforestation. We selected five forest fragments in a Restinga area in the state of Paraiba. A native fragment (Control Area-AC) and four fragments that have undergone a mining process and present different ages of reforestation (1989, 1997, 2001 and 2003). The avifauna samples occurred in four expeditions between November 2006 and April 2008 and counted with a total effort of 2700 net.m2 per expedition. Statistical tests verified richness differences between studied areas, as well as the composition of their functional groups. In general, 90 bird species were recorded, and the highest reforestation age area presented the highest richness (n = 51 spp.). The species richness comparisons indicated that the difference in the richness between AC and reforested areas is not statistically significant. The similarity analysis indicates that reforested areas share a large amount of species and AC has a great differentiation in composition. This differentiation is explained by the significant presence of frugivorous, nectarivorous, leaf and understory-insectivorous species. Changes in species richness and composition in degraded areas are expected and reforested areas usually have a smaller number of forest-dependent species due to the deficiency of available resources. The recovery of areas by reforestation are important conservation strategies, however there is need for management measures that promote the enrichment of these areas and the availability of resources for species dependent on environments Forest.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Araujo, H.F.P. & Silva, J.M.C. (2017). The Avifauna of the Caatinga: Biogeography, Ecology, and Conservation. In J.M.C. Silva, I. Leal, & M. Tabarelli (Ed.). Biodiversity, Ecosystems Services and Sustainable Development in Caatinga: The Largest Tropical Dry Forest Region in South America. (pp. 181–210). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Banks-Leite, C.; Ewers, R. M. & Metzger J. P. (2013). The confounded effects of habitat disturbance at the local, patch and landscape scale on understorey birds of the Atlantic Forest: Implications for the development of landscape-based indicators. Ecological indicators, 31, 82-88. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.04.015

Bierregard, R. O. & Lovejoy, T. E. (1989). Effects of forest fragmentation on Amazonian understory bird communities. Acta amazonica, 19, 215-241. doi: 10.1590/1809-43921989191241

Boesing, A. L., Nichols, E. & Metzger, J. P. (2018). Biodiversity extinction thresholds are modulated by matrix type. Ecography, 41(9), 1520-1533. doi: 10.1111/ecog.03365

Brancalion, P. H., Melo, F. P., Tabarelli, M. & Rodrigues, R. R. (2013). Restoration reserves as biodiversity safeguards in human-modified landscapes. Natureza & Conservação, 11(2), 1-5. doi: 10.4322/natcon.2013.029
Calmon, M., Brancalion, P. H., Paese, A., Aronson, J., Castro, P., Silva, S. C. & Rodrigues, R. R. (2011). Emerging threats and opportunities for large‐scale ecological restoration in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Restoration Ecology, 19(2), 154-158. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00772.x

Catterall, C. P., Freeman, A. N. D., Kanowski, J. & Freebody, K. (2012). Can active restoration of tropical rainforest rescue biodiversity? A case with bird community indicators. Biological Conservation, 146(1), 53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.10.033

Cristescu, R. H., Frère, C. & Banks, P. B. (2012). A review of fauna in mine rehabilitation in Australia: current state and future directions. Biological Conservation, 149(1), 60-72. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.02.003

Cunha, L. O., Fontes, M. A. L., Oliveira, A. D. & Oliveira-Filho, A. T. (2003). Análise multivariada da vegetação como ferramenta para avaliar a reabilitação de dunas litorâneas mineradas em Mataraca, Paraíba, Brasil. Revista Árvore, 27(4), 503-515. doi: 10.1590/S0100-67622003000400011

De Coster, G., Banks-Leite, C. & Metzger, J. P. (2015). Atlantic forest bird communities provide different but not fewer functions after habitat loss. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1811), 2014-2844. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.2844

Donner, D. M., Ribic, C. A. & PROBST, J. R. (2010). Patch dynamics and the timing of colonization–abandonment events by male Kirtland’s Warblers in an early succession habitat. Biological Conservation, 143(5), 1159-1167. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.02.023

Duré, R. C., Barbosa, M. R., Gadelha-Neto, P. C., Lima, I. B., & Lima, J. R. (2018). Reabilitação florestal de dunas litorâneas pós-mineração no nordeste brasileiro. Gaia Scientia, 12(1). doi: 10.22478/ufpb.1981-1268.2018v12n1.36704

Gibson, L., Lee, T. M., Koh, L. P., Brook, B. W., Gardner, T. A., Barlow, J., Peres, C. A., Bradshaw, C. J. A., Laurance, W. F., Lovejoy, T. E. & Sodhi, N. S. (2011). Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature, 478(7369), 378-381. doi: 10.1038/nature10425

Gimenes, M. R. & Anjos, L. (2003). Efeitos da fragmentação florestal sobre as comunidades de aves. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, 25(2), 391-402. doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2030

Kassambara, A. & Mundt, F. (2016). Factoextra: extract and visualize the results of multivariate data analyses. R package version, 1.3. Recovered from http://www.sthda.com/english/rpkgs/factoextra/.

Lepš, J., de Bello, F., Šmilauer, P., & Doležal, J. (2011). Community trait response to environment: disentangling species turnover vs intraspecific trait variability effects. Ecography, 34(5), 856-863. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06904.x

MacArthur, R. H. & MacArthur, J. W. (1961). On bird species diversity. Ecology, Washington, D.C., v. 42, n. 3, p. 594-598, 1961. doi: 10.2307/1932254

Machado, A. B. M., Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, A. P. (2008). Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Belo Horizonte: Fundação Biodiversitas.

Melo, F. P. L., Arroyo-Rodriguez, V., Fahrig L., Martinez-Ramos, M. & Tabarelli, M. (2013). On the hope for biodiversity-friendly tropical landscapes. Trends in ecology & evolution, 28(8), 462-468. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2013.01.001

Moura, N. G., Lees, A. C., Aleixo, A., Barlow, J., Dantas, S. M., Ferreira, J., Lima, M. F. & Gardner, T. A. (2014). Two hundred years of local avian extinctions in Eastern Amazonia. Conservation biology, 28(5), 1271-1281. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12300

Munro, N. T., Fischer, J., Barrett, G., Wood, J., Leavesley, A., & Lindenmayer, D. B. (2011). Bird's response to revegetation of different structure and floristics—are “restoration plantings” restoring bird communities? Restoration Ecology, 19(201), 223-235. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00703.x

Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F. G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., O'Hara, R.B., Simpson, G. L., Solymos, P., Stevens, M. H. H., Wagner, H. (2019). vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.5-6. Recovered from https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan

Parker III, T.A., Stotz, D.F. & Fitzpatrick, J.W., 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Parker III, T.A. & Moskovits, D.K. (Eds.), Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 111–410.

Piacentini, V. Q., Aleixo, A., Agne, C. E., Maurício, G. N., Pacheco, J. F., Bravo, G. A.,... & Cesari, E. (2015). Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee/Lista comentada das aves do Brasil pelo Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(2), 91-298. Recovered from http://www.revbrasilornitol.com.br/BJO/article/view/1263

Ribeiro, M. C., Metzger, J. P., Martensen, A. C., Ponzoni, F. J. & Hirota, M. M. (2009). The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: How much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biological conservation, 142(6), 1141-1153. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.021

Rossi, J. P. (2011). rich: an R package to analyse species richness. Diversity, 3(1), 112-120. https://doi.org/10.3390/d3010112

Santos-Junior, P. C. A., Marques, F. C., Lima, M. R. & Anjos, L. (2016). The importance of restoration areas to conserve bird species in a highly fragmented Atlantic forest landscape. Natureza & Conservação, 14(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ncon.2016.03.001

Stanturf, J. A., PALIK, B. J. & Dumroesem R. K. (2014). Contemporary forest restoration: a review emphasizing function. Forest Ecology and Management, 331, 292-323. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.07.029

Stratford, J. A. & Stouffer, P. C. (2013). Microhabitat associations of terrestrial insectivorous birds in Amazonian rainforest and second‐growth forests. Journal of Field Ornithology, 84(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1111/jofo.12000

Supp, S. R. & Ernest, S. K. M. (2014). Species‐level and community‐level responses to disturbance: a cross‐community analysis. Ecology, 95(7), 1717-1723. doi: 10.1890/13-2250.1

Wilman, H., Belmaker, J., Simpson, J., Rosa, C., Rivadeneira, M. M. & Jetz, W. (2014). EltonTraits 1.0: Species‐level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology, 95, 2027-2027. doi:10.1890/13-1917.1
Published
2020-05-25
How to Cite
MARIANO, Erich de Freitas et al. Bird assembly in restinga reforested areas. Acta Brasiliensis, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 2, p. 91-98, may 2020. ISSN 2526-4338. Available at: <http://revistas.ufcg.edu.br/ActaBra/index.php/actabra/article/view/305>. Date accessed: 05 dec. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.22571/2526-4338305.