Mechanism of inflammation and neuroendocrine dysregulation in obesity

Abstract

Obesity is a pathological condition in which there is increased volume of adipose tissue. This state has a multifactorial and complex etiology and is a risk factor for some diseases. This research aims to address the inflammatory and neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in obesity. This is a descriptive literature review based on scientific articles, books and journals. The search used the following descriptors: adipose tissue, immune system, proinflammatory cytokines, adipokine production, and energy deregulation. In the obese state, excessive fat accumulation causes adipose tissue dysfunction that contributes to increased inflammation and altered adipokine secretion, generating imbalance in energy homeostasis and evidencing the emergence of other obesity-related diseases. In addition, hypothalamic inflammation has been associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, favoring the development and progression of obesity. Thus, the understanding of the inflammatory aspects involved in obesity is extremely important to understand the mechanisms of energy deregulation and to assist in the prevention and treatment of obesity.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abella, V., Scotece, M., Conde, J., Pino, J., Gonzalez-Gay, M.A., Gomez-Reino, J.J., Mera, A., Lago, F., Gómez, R., & Gualillo, O. (2017). Leptin in the interplay of inflammation, metabolism and immune system disorders. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, 13(2), 100. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2016.209.
Oriá, R. B., & Brito, G. D. C. (2016). Sistema digestório: integração básico-clínica. 1ª edição, cap, 16, 390-409. doi: 10.5151/9788580391893-16.
Booth, A., Magnuson, A., Fouts, J., & Foster, M. (2015). Adipose tissue, obesity and adipokines: role in cancer promotion. Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation, 21(1), 57-74. doi:10.1515/hmbci-2014-0037.
Brasileiro, F.G. (2011). Bogliolo Patologia Geral. (8a ed.). Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan.
Chandrasekaran, A. (2018). Body Mass Index-Is it Reliable Indicator of Obesity. Journal Nutri Weight Loss, 2(111), 2.
Coelho, M., Oliveira, T., & Fernandes, R. (2013). Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ. Archives of medical science: AMS, 9(2), 191. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2013.33181
Damiani, D., & Damiani, D. (2011). Sinalização cerebral do apetite. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Clínica Médica. 9(2), 138-45. Disponível em: .
de Castro, J. M., Ferreira, E. F., da Silva, D. C., & de Oliveira, R. A. R. (2018). Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade e os fatores de risco associados em adolescentes. RBONE-Revista Brasileira de Obesidade, Nutrição e Emagrecimento, 12(69), 84-93. Disponível em: < http://www.rbone.com.br/index.php/rbone/article/view/657>. Acesso em: 25 mar. 2018.
de Heredia, F. P., Gómez-Martínez, S., & Marcos, A. (2012). Obesity, inflammation and the immune system. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 71(2), 332-338. Disponível em: .
de Oliveira Leal, V., & Mafra, D. (2013). Adipokines in obesity. Clinica Chimica Acta, 419, 87-94. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2013.02.003.
Diwan, A. G., Kuvalekar, A. A., Dharamsi, S., Vora, A. M., Nikam, V. A., & Ghadge, A. A. (2018). Correlation of serum adiponectin and leptin levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 22(1), 93. doi: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_491_15.
Dos Santos, K. E. R., & Ricci, G. C. L. (2018). Microbiota Intestinal E A Obesidade. Revista Uningá Review, 26(1). Disponível em: < http://revista.uninga.br/index.php/uningareviews/article/view/1794>. Acesso em: 25 mar. 2018.
Francisqueti, F. V., Nascimento, A. F. D., & Corrêa, C. R. (2015). Obesidade, inflamação e complicações metabólicas. Nutrire, 81-89. doi: 10.4322/2316-7874.016213.
Furukawa, S., Fujita, T., Shimabukuro, M., Iwaki, M., Yamada, Y., Nakajima, Y., Nakayama, O., Makishima, M., Matsuda, M., & Shimomura, I. (2017). Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. The Journal of clinical investigation, 114(12), 1752-1761. doi: 10.1172/JCI92035.
de Git, K. C. G., & Adan, R. A. H. (2015). Leptin resistance in diet‐induced obesity: the role of hypothalamic inflammation. Obesity reviews, 16(3), 207-224. doi: 10.1111/obr.12243.
Godoy-Matos, A., Cruz, I., da Costa, R., Júnior, W. S., & Brazilian Adipokines Study Group. (2014). Adipocinas: uma visão geral dos seus efeitos metabólicos. Revista Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, 13(1). doi:10.12957/rhupe.2014.9806
Jais, A., & Brüning, J. C. (2017). Hypothalamic inflammation in obesity and metabolic disease. The Journal of clinical investigation, 127(1), 24-32. doi: 10.1172/JCI88878.
Kumar, V., Abbas, A., & Aster, J. C. (2016). Robbins & Cotran Patologia-bases patológicas das doenças (9a ed.). Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier Brasil.
Lee, B. C., Kim, M. S., Pae, M., Yamamoto, Y., Eberlé, D., Shimada, T., Kamei, N., Park, H.S., Sasorith, S., Woo, J. R., You, J., Mosher, W., Brady, H.J.M., Shoelson, S.E., & Lee, J. (2016). Adipose natural killer cells regulate adipose tissue macrophages to promote insulin resistance in obesity. Cell metabolism, 23(4), 685-698. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.03.002.
Leite, L. D., de Medeiros Rocha, É. D., & Brandão-Neto, J. (2009). Obesidade: uma doença inflamatória. Ciência & Saúde, 2(2), 85-95. Disponível em: . Acessado em: 17 jan. 2018.
Leopoldo, A. S., da Rocha, V., Claudio, E., da Silva, V., Cordeiro, J., Domingos, L., Cunha M. R. H., Mauad H., Nascimento T. B. & Lima-Leopoldo A. P. (2019). High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Model Does Not Promote Endothelial Dysfunction via Increasing Leptin/Akt/eNOS Signaling. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 268, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00268.
Makki, K., Froguel, P., & Wolowczuk, I. (2013). Adipose tissue in obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance: cells, cytokines, and chemokines. ISRN inflammation, 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/139239.
Marseglia, L., Manti, S., D’Angelo, G., Nicotera, A., Parisi, E., Di Rosa, G., Gitto, E., & Arrigo, T. (2015). Oxidative stress in obesity: a critical component in human diseases. International journal of molecular sciences, 16(1), 378-400. Disponível em: .
Maurizi, G., Della Guardia, L., Maurizi, A., & Poloni, A. (2018). Adipocytes properties and crosstalk with immune system in obesity‐related inflammation. Journal of cellular physiology, 233(1), 88-97. doi: 10.1002/jcp.25855.
Mraz, M., & Haluzik, M. (2014). The role of adipose tissue immune cells in obesity and low-grade inflammation. Journal of Endocrinology, 222(3), R113-R127. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-1811.
Palomino, D. C. T., & Marti, L. C. (2015). Quimiocinas e imunidade. Einstein (16794508), 13(3). doi: 10.1590/S1679-45082015RB3438.
Paltoglou, G., Schoina, M., Valsamakis, G., Salakos, N., Avloniti, A., Chatzinikolaou, A., Margeli, A., Skevaki, C., Papagianni, M., Kanaka-Gantenbein, C., & Papassotiriou, I. (2017). Interrelations among the adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress and aseptic inflammation markers in pre-and early-pubertal normal-weight and obese boys. Endocrine, 55(3), 925-933. doi: 10.1007/s12020-017-1227-3.
Pan, W. W., & Myers Jr, M. G. (2018). Leptin and the maintenance of elevated body weight. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 19(2), 95. doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.168.
Prado, W. L. D., Lofrano, M. C., Oyama, L. M., & Dâmaso, A. R. (2009). Obesidade e adipocinas inflamatórias: implicações práticas para a prescrição de exercício. Revista brasileira de medicina do esporte. doi: 10.1590/S1517-86922009000600012.
Sáinz, N., Barrenetxe, J., Moreno-Aliaga, M. J., & Martínez, J. A. (2015). Leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity: central and peripheral actions of leptin. Metabolism, 64(1), 35-46. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.10.015.
Saltiel, A. R., & Olefsky, J. M. (2017). Inflammatory mechanisms linking obesity and metabolic disease. The Journal of clinical investigation, 127(1), 1-4. doi: 10.1172/JCI92035.
Scerif, M., Goldstone, A. P., & Korbonits, M. (2011). Ghrelin in obesity and endocrine diseases. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 340(1), 15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2011.02.011.
Silveira, M. R., Frollini, A. B., Verlengia, R., & Cavaglieri, C. R. (2009). Correlation between obesity, adipokines and the immune system. Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropometry and Human Performance, 11(4), 466. Disponível em: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p466.
Speretta, G. F., Leite, R. D., & de Oliveira Duarte, A. C. (2014). Obesidade, inflamação e exercício: foco sobre o TNF-alfa e IL-10. Revista Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, 13(1). doi: 10.12957/rhupe.2014.9807.
Terra, F., Terumi, M., Bottura, G., Geise, B., Câmara, N. O. S., & Latancia, M. (2014). A relação entre duas síndromes pró-inflamatórias da atualidade: sepse e obesidade. Revista de Medicina, 93(2), 69-77. Disponível em:
Timper, K., & Brüning, J. C. (2017). Hypothalamic circuits regulating appetite and energy homeostasis: pathways to obesity. Disease models & mechanisms, 10(6), 679-689. doi: 10.1242/dmm.026609.
Unamuno, X., Gómez‐Ambrosi, J., Rodríguez, A., Becerril, S., Frühbeck, G., & Catalán, V. (2018). Adipokine dysregulation and adipose tissue inflammation in human obesity. European journal of clinical investigation, 48(9), e12997. doi: 10.1111/eci.12997.
Van de Sande-Lee, S., & Velloso, L. A. (2012). Hypothalamic dysfunction in obesity. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 56(6), 341-350. doi: 10.1590/S0004-27302012000600001.
Vieira, P. M. M. D. M. (2011). Leptina: um modulador central das respostas imunes (Tese). Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo. Disponível em: .
World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity and overweight. What are overweight and obesity? Disponível em: . Acesso em: 07 jan. 2018.
Published
2020-01-19
How to Cite
CALZERRA, Natália Tabosa Machado et al. Mechanism of inflammation and neuroendocrine dysregulation in obesity. Acta Brasiliensis, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 1, p. 70-76, jan. 2020. ISSN 2526-4338. Available at: <http://revistas.ufcg.edu.br/ActaBra/index.php/actabra/article/view/258>. Date accessed: 26 feb. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.22571/2526-4338258.